Object oriented paradigm to improve transfer learning in RL, i.e., a sort of symbolic abstraction mechanism

Ofir Marom, Benjamin Rosman, Transferable dynamics models for efficient object-oriented reinforcement learning, Robotics and Autonomous Systems, Volume 174, 2024 DOI: 10.1016/j.artint.2024.104079.

The Reinforcement Learning (RL) framework offers a general paradigm for constructing autonomous agents that can make effective decisions when solving tasks. An important area of study within the field of RL is transfer learning, where an agent utilizes knowledge gained from solving previous tasks to solve a new task more efficiently. While the notion of transfer learning is conceptually appealing, in practice, not all RL representations are amenable to transfer learning. Moreover, much of the research on transfer learning in RL is purely empirical. Previous research has shown that object-oriented representations are suitable for the purposes of transfer learning with theoretical efficiency guarantees. Such representations leverage the notion of object classes to learn lifted rules that apply to grounded object instantiations. In this paper, we extend previous research on object-oriented representations and introduce two formalisms: the first is based on deictic predicates, and is used to learn a transferable transition dynamics model; the second is based on propositions, and is used to learn a transferable reward dynamics model. In addition, we extend previously introduced efficient learning algorithms for object-oriented representations to our proposed formalisms. Our frameworks are then combined into a single efficient algorithm that learns transferable transition and reward dynamics models across a domain of related tasks. We illustrate our proposed algorithm empirically on an extended version of the Taxi domain, as well as the more difficult Sokoban domain, showing the benefits of our approach with regards to efficient learning and transfer.

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