A nice SLAM approach based on hybrid Normal Distribution Transform (NDT) + occupancy grid maps intended for long term operation in dynamic environments

Erik Einhorn, Horst-Michael Gross, Generic NDT mapping in dynamic environments and its application for lifelong SLAM, Robotics and Autonomous Systems, Volume 69, July 2015, Pages 28-39, ISSN 0921-8890, DOI: 10.1016/j.robot.2014.08.008.

In this paper, we present a new, generic approach for Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM). First of all, we propose an abstraction of the underlying sensor data using Normal Distribution Transform (NDT) maps that are suitable for making our approach independent from the used sensor and the dimension of the generated maps. We present several modifications for the original NDT mapping to handle free-space measurements explicitly. We additionally describe a method to detect and handle dynamic objects such as moving persons. This enables the usage of the proposed approach in highly dynamic environments. In the second part of this paper we describe our graph-based SLAM approach that is designed for lifelong usage. Therefore, the memory and computational complexity is limited by pruning the pose graph in an appropriate way.

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