Kalman filter with time delays

H. Zhu, J. Mi, Y. Li, K. -V. Yuen and H. Leung, VB-Kalman Based Localization for Connected Vehicles With Delayed and Lost Measurements: Theory and Experiments, EEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 1370-1378, June 2022 DOI: 10.1109/TMECH.2021.3095096.

Traditionally, connected vehicles (CVs) share their own sensor data that relies on the satellite with their surrounding vehicles by vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication. However, the satellite-based signal sometimes may be lost due to environmental factors. Time-delays and packet dropouts may occur randomly by V2V communication. To ensure the reliability and accuracy of localization for CVs, a novel variational Bayesian (VB)-Kalman method is developed for unknown and time varying probabilities of delayed and lost measurements. In this VB-Kalman localization method, two random variables are introduced to indicate whether a measurement is delayed and available, respectively. A hierarchical model is then formulated and its parameters and state are simultaneously estimated by the VB technique. Experimental results validate the proposed method for the localization of CVs in practice.

NOTE: See also S. Guo, Y. Liu, Y. Zheng and T. Ersal, “A Delay Compensation Framework for Connected Testbeds,” in IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems, vol. 52, no. 7, pp. 4163-4176, July 2022, doi: 10.1109/TSMC.2021.3091974.

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