An hypothesis that human perception can only be done in real-time if prediction mechanisms go ahead and save the gap caused by the processing of inputs, which actually cannot be done in real-time (plus further post-processing and adjustment of past perceptions)

Hinze Hogendoorn, Perception in real-time: predicting the present, reconstructing the past, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 2, 2022 DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2021.11.003.

We feel that we perceive events in the environment as they unfold in real-time. However, this intuitive view of perception is impossible to implement in the nervous system due to biological constraints such as neural transmission delays. I propose a new way of thinking about real-time perception: at any given moment, instead of representing a single timepoint, perceptual mechanisms represent an entire timeline. On this timeline, predictive mechanisms predict ahead to compensate for delays in incoming sensory input, and reconstruction mechanisms retroactively revise perception when those predictions do not come true. This proposal integrates and extends previous work to address a crucial gap in our understanding of a fundamental aspect of our everyday life: the experience of perceiving the present.

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