A particular application of quick detection of changes in a signal: detecting changes of voltage regimes in the electric distribution network

D. Macii and D. Petri, Rapid Voltage Change Detection: Limits of the IEC Standard Approach and Possible Solutions, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 69, no. 2, pp. 382-392, Feb. 2020, DOI: 10.1109/TIM.2019.2903617.

Rapid voltage changes (RVCs) are power quality (PQ) events characterized by small and fast transitions between two steady-state root-mean-square (rms) voltage levels. RVCs occur quite often at the distribution level and are expected to be even more frequent in the future due to the increasing penetration of dynamic loads and renewable-based generators in the smart grid. Unlike other PQ events, RVCs are less critical, but also more difficult to detect than dips/sags and swells, due to their smaller voltage variations. Nevertheless, they can be harmful to generators’ control systems and electronic equipment in general. Moreover, they strongly affect flicker. The IEC Standard 61000-4-3:2015 clearly describes an algorithm for RVC detection. However, this approach is poorly characterized in the scientific literature. In fact, it suffers from some drawbacks. In this paper, some of them (e.g., rate-dependent detection limits and detection delays) are analyzed in depth. In addition, an alternative approach based on the estimation of the rate of change of rms voltage is proposed. Multiple simulation results show that the approach considered is more sensitive to noise, but also faster, especially when not so fast RVCs occur. Moreover, it allows measuring the rate of change of rms voltage, which is currently disregarded in the IEC Standard.

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