H. A. G. C. Premachandra, R. Liu, C. Yuen and U. -X. Tan, UWB Radar SLAM: An Anchorless Approach in Vision Denied Indoor Environments, IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 5299-5306, Sept. 2023 DOI: 10.1109/LRA.2023.3293354.

LiDAR and cameras are frequently used as sensors for simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM). However, these sensors are prone to failure under low visibility (e.g. smoke) or places with reflective surfaces (e.g. mirrors). On the other hand, electromagnetic waves exhibit better penetration properties when the wavelength increases, thus are not affected by low visibility. Hence, this letter presents ultra-wideband (UWB) radar as an alternative to the existing sensors. UWB is generally known to be used in anchor-tag SLAM systems. One or more anchors are installed in the environment and the tags are attached to the robots. Although this method performs well under low visibility, modifying the existing infrastructure is not always feasible. UWB has also been used in peer-to-peer ranging collaborative SLAM systems. However, this requires more than a single robot and does not include mapping in the mentioned environment like smoke. Therefore, the presented approach in this letter solely depends on the UWB transceivers mounted on-board. In addition, an extended Kalman filter (EKF) SLAM is used to solve the SLAM problem at the back-end. Experiments were conducted and demonstrated that the proposed UWB-based radar SLAM is able to map natural point landmarks inside an indoor environment while improving robot localization.

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