Q-learning with a variation of e-greedy to learn the optimal management of energy in autonomous vehicles navigation

Mojgan Fayyazi, Monireh Abdoos, Duong Phan, Mohsen Golafrouz, Mahdi Jalili, Reza N. Jazar, Reza Langari, Hamid Khayyam, Real-time self-adaptive Q-learning controller for energy management of conventional autonomous vehicles, Expert Systems with Applications, Volume 222, 2023 DOI: 10.1016/j.eswa.2023.119770.

Reducing emissions and energy consumption of autonomous vehicles is critical in the modern era. This paper presents an intelligent energy management system based on Reinforcement Learning (RL) for conventional autonomous vehicles. Furthermore, in order to improve the efficiency, a new exploration strategy is proposed to replace the traditional decayed \u03b5-greedy strategy in the Q-learning algorithm associated with RL. Unlike traditional Q-learning algorithms, the proposed self-adaptive Q-learning (SAQ-learning) can be applied in real-time. The learning capability of the controllers can help the vehicle deal with unknown situations in real-time. Numerical simulations show that compared to other controllers, Q-learning and SAQ-learning controllers can generate the desired engine torque based on the vehicle road power demand and control the air/fuel ratio by changing the throttle angle efficiently in real-time. Also, the proposed real-time SAQ-learning is shown to improve the operational time by 23% compared to standard Q-learning. Our simulations reveal the effectiveness of the proposed control system compared to other methods, namely dynamic programming and fuzzy logic methods.

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