Interesting related work on internal models for action prediction and on the exploration/exploitation trade-off

Simón C. Smith; J. Michael Herrmann, Evaluation of Internal Models in Autonomous Learning, IEEE Transactions on Cognitive and Developmental Systems ( Volume: 11, Issue: 4, Dec. 2019), DOI: 10.1109/TCDS.2018.2865999.

Internal models (IMs) can represent relations between sensors and actuators in natural and artificial agents. In autonomous robots, the adaptation of IMs and the adaptation of the behavior are interdependent processes which have been studied under paradigms for self-organization of behavior such as homeokinesis. We compare the effect of various types of IMs on the generation of behavior in order to evaluate model quality across different behaviors. The considered IMs differ in the degree of flexibility and expressivity related to, respectively, learning speed and structural complexity of the model. We show that the different IMs generate different error characteristics which in turn lead to variations of the self-generated behavior of the robot. Due to the tradeoff between error minimization and complexity of the explored environment, we compare the models in the sense of Pareto optimality. Among the linear and nonlinear models that we analyze, echo-state networks achieve a particularly high performance which we explain as a result of the combination of fast learning and complex internal dynamics. More generally, we provide evidence that Pareto optimization is preferable in autonomous learning as it allows that a special solution can be negotiated in any particular environment.

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