Tag Archives: Communication Times Estimation

Interesting review of time delay measurement in one-way messages in networks at the application level

P. Ferrari, A. Flammini, E. Sisinni, S. Rinaldi, D. Brandão and M. S. Rocha, Delay Estimation of Industrial IoT Applications Based on Messaging Protocols, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 67, no. 9, pp. 2188-2199, DOI: 10.1109/TIM.2018.2813798.

Information and operational technologies merge into the so-called industrial Internet of Things, which is one of the basic pillars of the Industry 4.0 paradigm. Roughly speaking, yet-to-come services will be offered in the automation scenario by industrial devices having an internet connection for sharing data in the cloud. Currently, most efforts are in the development of protocols able to ensure horizontal interoperability among heterogeneous applications. Consequently, poor attention is devoted to time-related performance. In this paper, a new, full software, platform-independent approach is proposed for experimentally evaluating the delay in transferring information across local and intercontinental routes by applications leveraging on messaging middleware. The application is realized using the node-RED web-based framework, due to its availability on different platforms; the widely accepted message queue telemetry transport protocol has been chosen thanks to its low overhead and complexity. For sake of completeness, five different, private and public, brokers are used. The adopted industrial-grade hardware, complemented by global positioning system time reference, permits an overall synchronization and timestamping accuracy of a few milliseconds. The vast measurement campaign highlighted that, generally, quality of service (QoS) type 1 offers low end-to-end delay (average value less than 0.5 s) with reduced variability (0.1 s). However, the maximum end-to-end one-way delay ranges from 1 s for QoS 0 to less than 1.5 s for fully acknowledged QoS 2.

Estimating the bandwidth of a communication channel for adjusting the bitrate in high-definition video streaming, using Pareto and Gamma distributions (that are conjugate) in a bayesian estimation framework

Javadtalab, A.; Semsarzadeh, M.; Khanchi, A.; Shirmohammadi, S.; Yassine, A., Continuous One-Way Detection of Available Bandwidth Changes for Video Streaming Over Best-Effort Networks, Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on , vol.64, no.1, pp.190,203, Jan. 2015. DOI: 10.1109/TIM.2014.2331423

Video streaming over best-effort networks, such as the Internet, is now a significant application used by most Internet users. However, best-effort networks are characterized by dynamic and unpredictable changes in the available bandwidth, which adversely affect the quality of video. As such, it is important to have real-time detection mechanisms of bandwidth changes to ensure that video is adapted to the available bandwidth and transmitted at the highest quality. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian instantaneous end-to-end bandwidth change prediction model and method to detect and predict one-way bandwidth changes at the receiver. Unlike existing congestion detection mechanisms, which use network parameters such as packet loss probability, round trip time (RTT), or jitter, our approach uses weighted interarrival time of video packets at the receiver side. Furthermore, our approach is continuous, since it measures available bandwidth changes with each incoming video packet, and therefore detects congestion occurrence in <200 ms, on average, which is significantly faster than existing approaches. In addition, it is a one-way scheme, since it only takes into account the characteristics of the incoming path and not the outgoing path, as opposed to other approaches, which use RTT and are hence less accurate. In this paper, we provide extensive experimental simulations and real-world network implementation. Our results indicate that the proposed detection method is superior to existing solutions.