Tag Archives: Multiagent Systems

A survey on decision making for multiagent systems, including multirobot systems

Y. Rizk, M. Awad and E. W. Tunstel, Decision Making in Multiagent Systems: A Survey, IEEE Transactions on Cognitive and Developmental Systems, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 514-529, DOI: 10.1109/TCDS.2018.2840971.

Intelligent transport systems, efficient electric grids, and sensor networks for data collection and analysis are some examples of the multiagent systems (MAS) that cooperate to achieve common goals. Decision making is an integral part of intelligent agents and MAS that will allow such systems to accomplish increasingly complex tasks. In this survey, we investigate state-of-the-art work within the past five years on cooperative MAS decision making models, including Markov decision processes, game theory, swarm intelligence, and graph theoretic models. We survey algorithms that result in optimal and suboptimal policies such as reinforcement learning, dynamic programming, evolutionary computing, and neural networks. We also discuss the application of these models to robotics, wireless sensor networks, cognitive radio networks, intelligent transport systems, and smart electric grids. In addition, we define key terms in the area and discuss remaining challenges that include incorporating big data advancements to decision making, developing autonomous, scalable and computationally efficient algorithms, tackling more complex tasks, and developing standardized evaluation metrics. While recent surveys have been published on this topic, we present a broader discussion of related models and applications.Note to Practitioners:Future smart cities will rely on cooperative MAS that make decisions about what actions to perform that will lead to the completion of their tasks. Decision making models and algorithms have been developed and reported in the literature to generate such sequences of actions. These models are based on a wide variety of principles including human decision making and social animal behavior. In this paper, we survey existing decision making models and algorithms that generate optimal and suboptimal sequences of actions. We also discuss some of the remaining challenges faced by the research community before more effective MAS deployment can be achieved in this age of Internet of Things, robotics, and mobile devices. These challenges include developing more scalable and efficient algorithms, utilizing the abundant sensory data available, tackling more complex tasks, and developing evaluation standards for decision making.

Multi-agent reinfocerment learning for working with high-dimensional spaces

David L. Leottau, Javier Ruiz-del-Solar, Robert Babuška, Decentralized Reinforcement Learning of Robot Behaviors, Artificial Intelligence, Volume 256, 2018, Pages 130-159, DOI: 10.1016/j.artint.2017.12.001.

A multi-agent methodology is proposed for Decentralized Reinforcement Learning (DRL) of individual behaviors in problems where multi-dimensional action spaces are involved. When using this methodology, sub-tasks are learned in parallel by individual agents working toward a common goal. In addition to proposing this methodology, three specific multi agent DRL approaches are considered: DRL-Independent, DRL Cooperative-Adaptive (CA), and DRL-Lenient. These approaches are validated and analyzed with an extensive empirical study using four different problems: 3D Mountain Car, SCARA Real-Time Trajectory Generation, Ball-Dribbling in humanoid soccer robotics, and Ball-Pushing using differential drive robots. The experimental validation provides evidence that DRL implementations show better performances and faster learning times than their centralized counterparts, while using less computational resources. DRL-Lenient and DRL-CA algorithms achieve the best final performances for the four tested problems, outperforming their DRL-Independent counterparts. Furthermore, the benefits of the DRL-Lenient and DRL-CA are more noticeable when the problem complexity increases and the centralized scheme becomes intractable given the available computational resources and training time.

Survey of the modelling of agents (intentions, goals, etc.)

Stefano V. Albrecht, Peter Stone, Autonomous agents modelling other agents: A comprehensive survey and open problems, Artificial Intelligence,
Volume 258, 2018, Pages 66-95, DOI: 10.1016/j.artint.2018.01.002.

Much research in artificial intelligence is concerned with the development of autonomous agents that can interact effectively with other agents. An important aspect of such agents is the ability to reason about the behaviours of other agents, by constructing models which make predictions about various properties of interest (such as actions, goals, beliefs) of the modelled agents. A variety of modelling approaches now exist which vary widely in their methodology and underlying assumptions, catering to the needs of the different sub-communities within which they were developed and reflecting the different practical uses for which they are intended. The purpose of the present article is to provide a comprehensive survey of the salient modelling methods which can be found in the literature. The article concludes with a discussion of open problems which may form the basis for fruitful future research.